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In she married Oscar Horney, a lawyer, from whom she was separated in and divorced in After a period of medical practice she became interested in psychoanalysisand from to she studied and entered analysis with Karl Abrahama close associate and disciple of Sigmund Freud. From to she engaged in clinical and outpatient psychiatric work in connection with Berlin hospitals, and in she ed the teaching staff of the newly founded Berlin Psychoanalytic Institute.
Unaffected by the worshipful awe that held many early Freudians to received dogmashe forthrightly rejected such notions as penis envy and other manifestations of male bias in psychoanalytic theory. She argued instead that the source of much female psychiatric disturbance is located in the very male-dominated culture that had produced Freudian theory.
There she produced her major theoretical works, The Neurotic Very horney of Our Time and New Ways in Psychoanalysisin which she argued that environmental and social conditions, rather than the instinctual or biological drives described by Freud, determine much of individual personality and are the chief causes of neuroses and personality disorders.
She sought to help patients identify the specific cause of present anxieties, thinking that it was just as important to the goals of psychoanalysis to deal with real-life, present-day problems as it was to reconstruct childhood emotional states and fantasies. In many cases, she suggested that the patient could very horney learn to psychoanalyze himself. She also continued to write, further expounding her views that neuroses were caused by disturbances in interpersonal relationships in Our Inner Conflicts and Neurosis and Human Growth Her ideas on female psychosexual development were given particular attention after Feminine Psychologya collection of her early papers on the subject, was published in Karen Horney.
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Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. Subscribe Now. Learn More in these related Britannica articles:. Harry Stack Sullivan, Karen Horneyand Erich Fromm modified Freudian theory by emphasizing social relationships and cultural and environmental factors as being important in the formation of mental disorders.
Karen Horney asserted that low self-esteem le to the development of a personality that excessively craves approval and affection and exhibits an extreme desire for personal achievement. Sigmund FreudAustrian neurologist and the founder of psychoanalysis. Freud may….
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