Added: Matia Schwenk - Date: 28.07.2021 12:20 - Views: 14323 - Clicks: 7191
This paper draws upon a qualitative study with young people in seven different research schools in England, exploring how cis-heteronormative homosocial masculinity practices shape digital sexual image exchange. We examine three types of practices: 1 boys asking girls for nudes pressurized sexting, which we position as online sexual harassment ; 2 transactional nude solicitation boys sending dick pics and asking girls for nudes, which we position as image based sexual harassment and cyberflashing ; 3 non-consensual sharing of girls and boys nude images which we position as image based sexual abuse, showing the differential impacts with lasting sexual stigma worse for girls.
We also investigate the more recent rise of male nudes dick pics and how a homosocial culture of humour and lad banter tends to lessen the sexual stigmatization of leaked dick pics. We argue providing boys with time and space to reflect on homosocial masculinity performances is crucial for girls to trade nudes with these practices and our conclusions outline new UK school guidance for tackling online sexual harassment, cyberflashing and image-based sexual abuse. Driving to Lords, 1 an elite day school for boys, and one of our seven research schools in this study, the research team ended up at the wrong entrance.
At Lords, we worked with 13 boys across years 9 and 10 through focus group interviews with groups of 3—4 boys. The interviews involved discussions of social media use and digital images, as well as sharing of screen images if they chose, and drawing experiences of Instagram and snapchat feeds through paper templates we provided. As we discussed intimate image exchanges, the boys explained some of the key pressure points: Arun: Girls are more pressured into it kind of … I think the boys are just like maybe a joke that can go around the school with other boys.
Arun: [boys] They are less worried but there is still an element of fear in case it gets spread around the whole school like everyone and everyone knows about it is something to be sort of embarrassed about.
Sander: Like when girls send pics I think they send it with their face in it. Boys are under pressure to get sexual images from girls, and so they pressure girls to send them, which is discussed as a form of transactional trading. We will use theories of cisheteronormative, homosocial masculinity to understand sexual image exchange and hierarchies of gendered reward and value. Next, we will explore how homosocial dynamics are also at play in the dynamics of transactional nude exchange, particularly sending unwanted dick pics to motivate trades with girls, which we explore as a doubled form of sexual harassment and cyberflashing.
Following this, we explore practices of non-consensually sharing nude images and body parts. We argue that this behaviour is repeatedly naturalized and rationalized by the young cisheteronormative masculine peer group as a expected homosocial practice, particularly at their age. Finally, we consider how given a chance to explore homosocial masculinity practices, boys are able to critically analyse competitive pressure in the peer group and construct alternative future narratives.
Building on these insights in our conclusion, we introduce guidance for addressing online sexual harassment in schools developed to clearly understand consent in digital contexts and how and when practices become harassment and abuse. A growing body of work has examined homosociality as a set of strategies boys and men use to maintain the gender order and uphold male privileges Bird, ; Flood, The exclusion of women is an integral aspect, and many of these rituals turn out to be destructive or oppressive. Who can they generate value for?
Who can they devalue? And how does this involve ideas about gender and sexual morality? The authors mention that this trend is not practiced by all boys and it is possible to disrupt this behaviour, but they do not elaborate further. Similarly, Roberts, Ravn, and Maloney explore homosociality, masculinity and sexting through a small sample of 37 university undergraduate men aged 18—22 in Australia. As Roberts et al. When consent is lacking, this compulsory homosocial sharing needs to be understood and positioned as a form of abuse linked to homosocial reward structures that privilege performing hegemonic girls to trade nudes with forms of masculinity.
Heteronormtive is a frame that assumes a natural heterosexual attraction between opposite of masculine and feminine Butler, Bringing these elements together, our theoretical frame aims to explore the interacting of cis gender, heteronormative and homosocial masculinities, as all working in tandem to create discursively constituted hierarchical structures economies of reward and value in youth digital sexual cultures. Bridges and Pascoe also usefully suggest that we can see patterns of hybrid masculinity where elements of hegemonic heteronormative and misogynistic masculinity can persist alongside disruptive performances of caring and concern from boys and men.
As we will explore, boys can demonstrate awareness of how image sharing is abusive and assaultive, as well as empathy for victims, but still actively participate in cisheteronormative homosocial practices of showing and sharing without consent which normalizes harm and abuse of women and girls.
In this paper, we will also consider how homosocial imperatives influence the practices of producing and sending dick pics amongst young people in our research. Some of this research has looked at dick pic sending as transactional. In a recent survey of over 1, men, Oswald et al. Following this research, we explore how homosocial masculinity operates to buffer the reputational damage of leaked dick pics for boys. This paper draws on data from a research project in which we explored digital sexual image sharing practices amongst young people aged 11—18 at seven different secondary schools in the UK.
In total, we spoke to young people about their experiences of sending and receiving sexual images and content online. We collected the data through small focus groups where participants could refer to content on their phone if they wanted to and we culminated with a period of writing down and drawing things they experienced online and wanted to share.
After starting with a series of images deed to spark discussion about selfies, sexts and experiences managing sexualized content online we moved into discussions of how and when unsolicited and non-consensual content girls to trade nudes with. We also provided templates of social media app screens and asked the young people to draw their experiences. In some cases, further comments emerged based on the drawings they produced. The participants also created recommendations about online interactions and consent based on their own experiences.
In this paper, we will focus on the discussion which preceded the drawing activity.
Throughout the data collection process, we closely followed the strict ethical protocol from our university ethical board, including ed informed consent and anonymization of all data including the images. We also began the focus groups by establishing ground rules of respect and confidentiality and a trained sex education facilitator or a teacher were always present along with members of the research team during the focus groups.
Our data analysis involved using feminist discourse analysis Lazar, to isolate discourses of cisheteronormative homosocial masculinity Moloney and Love, Our study is important in that we explore how cis heteronormative masculinity discourses emerge in discussions across the peer groups with boys, girls as well as gender variant young people. We explore how masculinity practices and discourses shape and inform the peer-to-peer relationships and group dynamics in profound ways including how girls internalize and normalize these discourses.
As we explored above homosocial dynamics of pressure have led to boys pressuring girls to produce and send images to boys and men Ringrose et al. In order to understand these patterns of solicitation and heterosexual homosocial masculinity reward economy in this research, we asked how many girls across each age group had been girls to trade nudes with to send nudes. Swans Year 8 girls. This typical scenario highlights the normalization of girls being solicited to send sexual images. We found that the great majority of girls blocked but did not report these requests and brushed it off as something you just had to get used to.
They also discussed multiple girls being asked for nudes by the same boy simultaneously. But they actually want you to. Here the girls navigate a range of ways they are asked to send nudes, and humour is a way to normalize requests. They are learning to navigate the cultural fabric of lad banter which couches requests, which are meant to be received as funny although the girls deflect this and say the message to send something is still clear.
As with other research, we found that boys requests for nudes from girls are often framed as transactional Salter, ; Oswald, ; Mandau, Send other pictures of, you know, I just blocked them. Year 10 girls SELC.
In these cases, the initial sending of the dick pic functioned as a bargaining tool which senders framed as deserving of reciprocation. Girls discussed receiving transactional dick pics from strangers online as well as from romantic or sexual interests the girls knew. This can be seen in the exchange below from Year 8 girls at CLC1.
Interviewer: When you say less horny, are you saying because the men are more horny so they want pictures more? This indicates the confusion and uncertainty they have in making sense of what girls want, perhaps not having considered this before. After getting nudes, the normalization of sharing these nudes amongst the boys in their peer group was ubiquitous. Kye: Yeah exactly. But I still think most people would do more on private images to one person than they would put on a story or something. Lords Year 9 Boys Group 2. This is because the status can only be attained if the boy has demonstrably proven that they have received nudes from girls.
Not really respect but …. We can see a form of socio-cultural pressure being experienced by boys to secure nudes. The images operate like an extension of locker room talk Ricciardelli and Adorjan, forming a material currency to perform cis heteronormative masculinity. Like other forms of value recognition, the owner has to display it and show and share proof of the image in order to girls to trade nudes with status Ringrose et al.
Anwar: Yeah. It is also critical to note here that the exchange value of images is relative to the school ecosystem and the particular cis heteronormative homosocial masculinity cultures in play. The relative reward around images and the digital sharing is carefully judged according to site-specific risk. These risks were experienced differently in the independent boys school as well as the mixed elite boarding school where we spoke to 8 year eight boys who seemed to have received more media literacy education about online privacy and risk than other groups.
These young people expressed heightened concern that being caught with nudes could jeopardize their future. These exchanges highlight how homosocial reward disregards digital consent and how risk is navigated in contextually specific ways amongst different groups of boys. In our study, boys often sent dick pics over the sharing platform, Snapchat, where images are only available for a short time then disappear.
They also use the language of normalization to describe boys behaviour, which implies a level of awareness amongst the girls about sexism or sexual double standards.
But like Amundsen there is a lack of awareness of these practices as abusive and little reporting. And it went quite big of this girl. As the boys begin to narrate this story, an imbalance in the perceived value of and implications of 'leaked' images emerged. This was their response when asked how the peer group in both schools reacted: Interviewer: So what did boys think about that? Like what was their attitude towards like him?
Tim: People almost took the mic out of him a bit like ah you did this and it got shared … And especially with the person they did it with …. Sol: Because the girl was known for already doing stuff like that. We see clear sexual double standards in how girls to trade nudes with of boys and girls bodies and understood and reacted to by the young people. As we have been discussing the gendered dynamics of cis heteronormative, homosocial reward economy creates contexts of differential reward around images of girls and boys bodies and work to mask patterns of harassment and abuse in the peer groups.
When boys were given the opportunity to discuss these scenarios at length, they demonstrated an explicit awareness of the demands of homosocial performativity in relation to image exchange. Interviewer: Why is it [sending images] different [depending on age]? Omar: Because as an adult like you should be mature enough and responsible enough to make your own decisions, like knowing that you could trust the person that you send that to.
SELC year 10 boys. In this discussion, the boys are discussing the socialized norms of their age group. In using this term, the participants knowingly articulate the homosocial group relations that demand sharing, and that they derive humour from, as they collectively laugh.Girls to trade nudes with
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‘Wanna trade?’: Cisheteronormative homosocial masculinity and the normalization of abuse in youth digital sexual image exchange